this in done by machine but can be done by hand when necessary, 3 cups home ground hard white wheat 2 cups home ground oats(just roughly ground like groats) 12 ounces of hot water(it will be cooled enough by the time the yeast is added) 4tsp vital gluten 2tsp yeast a shot glass full of olive oil or veg oil. we just put everything in a mixer with dough hook and let it mix,knead for about 15 min, by then you'll know if you need more flour to toughten it up or more water to loosen it up, It's best if a little wet. let it rise in a warm place til doubled, sometime 4 hrs. after risen, we put it back in the mixer and let it knead for another 15 min. put it in the pans and let it rise again, bake 1hr at 350. not to heavy but better than eating a snowball when hungry, we use our own honey and or apple butter on it.