There's another thread on here about making birch sap syrup, by SonnyJim, and it's useful to know, because it's another way to make sweetener if TSHTF, but I just read about another, too. Larch (also called Tamarak): "The sap and gum contain galatan, a natural sugar with a flavor like slightly bitter honey. The Flathead and Kootenai Indians hollowed out a cavity in a Larch tree, allowing about 4 liters of sweet syrup to accumulate. This substance could be evaporated to make it even sweeter." (Plants of the Rocky Mountains, Kershaw, MacKinnon, & Pojar). With either larch or birch sap, I'd think a person wouldn't even have to boil it down to syrup thickness to use it. We could make tea right in the sweet water, even using locally available plants like rose hips, mint, dandelion, etc. It could be added in place of plain water in some recipes to reduce or replace the use of other sweeteners. Until we're lucky enough to get set up with bees/honey, I've been looking for other options. I'd prefer to be able to have a continueing supply rather than many years' worth of stored sugar.