Yes, it's called 'Algar' and it's a nutrient rich gel that you use to grow cultures in.
Once the nutrients in 'Algar' are used up, you can't refertilize it, and if they water dries up or is used up, you can't add more water to the mix.
You would be better off by trying to grow your plants in Styrofoam or wood blocks floating on water.
You can always add more nutrients to the water, or more water to the tank...
The only reason plants need 'Soil' is to keep them facing upright, and if you 'Hydroponic' garden, then you simply just add upright sticks or wire cages to support reaching or climbing plants.
If plants are very tall, like corn, you might want to grow the roots in tubes and run water/compost through the tubes instead of having the plants float in bedding pans...
Much easier to tie off tall plants like that than to try and support them from a floating platform like lettuce, carrots, radishes, ect. would be.